Writing Dotkits

Simple Dotkits | Fancier Dotkits | Reusable Dotkits | Recursive or Nested Dotkits
Mutually Exclusive Dotkits | Super Dotkits | Sub-site Access Dotkits
SYS_TYPE-Specific Dotkits | Shell-Specific Dotkits | Hiding a Dotkit | Dotfile Setup


Dotkit Overview | Using Dotkit | Creating Dotkit Packages | Dotkit Commands | How Dotkit Works

Simple Dotkits

A dotkit is a file named "something.dk" containing instructions to modify your environment so as to match the requirements of a given software system.

Most dotkits are very simple. The first line of the file categorizes the kit into one of several kinds. This is followed by a one-line textual description of the kit's purpose, possible followed with some additional help. After that, you modify environment variables as needed to do the job. Here is $DK_ROOT/bin.dk (a four-line file):

#c shell
#d: Add /bin to PATH

dk_alter PATH /bin

The #c at the beginning of the first line tells Dotkit that this package is part of the "shell" category. (Most of the dotkits that ship with the system are in this category.) The line Add /bin to PATH, beginning with #d, is descriptive text. Descriptive text lines (there can be more than one) should generally be kept to 65 characters or fewer for neat display by use-usage.

The dk_alter line accomplishes two things. If you are using the kit, it adds "/bin" to your PATH, while if you are unusing the kit, it deletes "/bin" from your PATH. The end user controls whether "/bin" goes at the beginning or end of their PATH, with the -a option for use.

The category/subcategory and descriptive text at the beginning of each dotkit file allows you to publish the existence and purpose of your package to all the users of Dotkit. They are collated together by the use-usage program when you run use -l to display all the available dotkits in a nicely formatted list. Otherwise, they do not affect the operation of Dotkit in any way. (Use-usage is the program that runs when you type use with no arguments or use -l.)

Besides dk_alter, the other command used most frequently inside a dotkit is dk_setenv. It is common for applications to look for auxiliary environment variables specific to them. Here is the "less.dk" dotkit:

#c shell
#d: Set up PAGER as "less" if available, or fall back to "more"

dk_setenv PAGER `dk_where less` || \
  dk_setenv PAGER `dk_where more`
dk_setenv LESS -isceM
dk_setenv MANPAGER $PAGER
dk_setenv MORE -c

This package does several things. The first dk_setenv line uses dk_where to look for the path name of the "less" pager. If that cannot be found, we settle for setting PAGER to the path name of "more," which is presumed to be available everywhere.

The last three lines set options for both less and more and make sure that the man utility uses the same PAGER as everything else.

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Fancier (but still simple) Dotkits

Quoting of variables inside a dotkit is not usually required unless the value of the variable contains white space. Simple applications of eval (hopefully) behave as you would expect:

dk_setenv A AAA
dk_setenv A2 "X Y Z"
dk_setenv C B
eval dk_setenv $C $A

In addition to A, A2, and C, the last dk_setenv will create an environment variable B with value AAA.

Conditional code can be put into dotkits using the standard "And/Or" command list syntax common to all UNIX shells:

grep foobar /etc/passwd >/dev/null && \
  dk_setenv X A || \
  dk_setenv X B

will set the environment variable X to A if the name foobar appears in /etc/passwd, or to B otherwise.

Dk_source allows you to read the contents of another file from within a dotkit. This is sometimes useful, especially to utilize pre-existing or external code that sets up the environment for some application.

Unless you know a priori that the dk_source'd file is written in shell-independent fashion, you might need to test the current shell in order to choose the appropriate file to source:

dk_test $_dk_shell = csh -o $_dk_shell = tcsh && \
  dk_source foo.csh || \
  dk_source foo.sh

_Dk_shell is an internal variable available inside any dotkit containing the (base) name of your shell.

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Reusable or Idempotent Dotkits

Any dotkit can be reused if you just unuse it first. There is even a reuse command to do that. Normally, however, Dotkit will decline to read the text of a package file more than once, telling you that the dotkit was already loaded. An "idempotent" dotkit allows you to break that rule by giving the kit a base name that ends with the 2 characters ++. (The file name extension is still .dk.) In this case, Dotkit will re-read the file even if it has previously been seen. This is usually of interest only in the case where a dotkit contains dk_alias definitions.

Shell aliases are not inherited by subshells and are treated differently from environment variables at login time or when a subshell is started. You therefore probably want to place your dk_alias definitions in a reusable dotkit.

Alternatively, you can set up Dotkit so that it always re-reads every package, even if the package has previously been loaded. Set the environment variable DK_UEQRU to 1 (there is a special "reuse" package available that does this for you). Then every use behaves as if you had typed reuse. Although it slows things down a little, this can be good if Dotkit is not the only process that might be making changes to your environment.

Recursive or Nested Dotkits

Dotkits can include other dotkits, up to nine levels deep. This allows you to compose and name a set of modifications to the environment by combining the effects of one or more other dotkits.

Suppose you want to write a recursive dotkit that includes several others. You might start off by creating the file Fancy.dk, with contents as follows:

#c personal
#d: My fancy package, includes bin, etc, local, sbin packages

use -q bin etc local sbin

This is almost correct. When you type use Fancy, the effect is to load it (which otherwise does nothing), then the four other named packages. The only problem comes when you want to unuse Fancy. It would be nice if that line beginning use -q ... would somehow magically turn into unuse -q .... This is what dk_op does. Write the line instead as

dk_op -q bin etc local sbin

and it means use or unuse (quietly) those four packages, depending on whether you are using or unusing the Fancy package.

As a general rule, a dotkit cannot include itself (but see Super Dotkits below.) It can, however, unuse itself, as the following section makes clear.

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Mutually Exclusive (mutex) Dotkits

Recursion offers a nice solution to another common problem in managing your environment. Many commands, libraries, or code systems are installed in multiple versions. Suppose you have three versions of gcc installed, versions 1.1, 1.2, and 1.3, with three dotkits named gcc-1.1, gcc-1.2, and gcc-1.3, respectively. In order to set your environment for using 1.1, you would type use gcc-1.1, and so forth. Here is what the package file for gcc-1.1 might look like:

#c compilers/gnu
#d: GCC version 1.1

unuse -q gcc-1.1 gcc-1.2 gcc-1.3

dk_setenv COMPILER gcc_1_1
dk_alter PATH /usr/local/gcc-1.1/bin

The initial unuse command clears all variants of this package (if any) from your environment before the dk_setenv and dk_alter commands add back the changes for this specific package. Note that the unuse mentions gcc-1.1, which is the name of this particular package. Dotkit notices, and ignores, a trivial self-reference in this (unuse) case. This allows you to put an identical unuse line in all variants of a package. See Super Dotkits below for more about self-reference in the use case.

The pattern unuse -q <all variants> is so common that Dotkit includes special support for it with the dk_rep command. Although the example as given above works fine, it requires old packages to change every time a new variant is added. It would be nicer to be able to refer to all the variants of a given mutex family by using a pattern for their names. Thus, a better way to write the unuse line for the given example is like this:

unuse -q `dk_rep 'gcc-*'`

The dk_rep command is reminiscent of Perl's grep command, operating on Dotkit's built-in list of packages in current use. In this case, it finds any package already loaded whose name matches gcc-*.

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Super Dotkits

One more variation on recursion is the so-called "Super" package. (It may be useful to now read the section How Dotkit Finds Package Files.) Briefly, kits are arranged in a hierarchy from the most general or universally applicable (those under $DK_ROOT itself), to the most specific (your personal dotkits, under $HOME/.kits/), with site-wide or project dotkits intermediate between those extremes.

You can write universal, site, SYS_TYPE, shell-specific, or personal versions of any given package by choosing its location in the hierarchy. You override the more general version of a dotkit by creating a new package with the same name and placing it in a more specific location. Moreover, you can choose whether to override the general version entirely, or you can "inherit" the general version(s) by the artifice of the "Super" package.

Refer back to the less.dk example shown earlier. Suppose you like everything about that package but would prefer to change the MORE option from -c to -p. Create a personal dotkit named less.dk (the same name as the universal kit), located at $HOME/.kits (your personal node in the Dotkit search path). Your version first loads the universal package, then makes the adjustment you desire:

#c personal
#d: My personal less/more options

dk_op -q Super
dk_setenv MORE -p

Super is a self-reference, interpreted by Dotkit to mean the "next package up" by the same name in the hierarchy. It allows you to construct a dotkit by selecting general capabilities, then making more and more specific additions or changes.

Use of Super can be chained if there are more than two versions of a given package in the Dotkit search tree. Each use of Super finds the next upward instance of the current dotkit.

Self-reference in any other context will generally cause a "Recursion limit exceeded!" error. This usually happens when two (different) packages reference each other.

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Sub-site Access Dotkits

A large network may serve several audiences, not all of whom want to see the entire array of dotkits that are otherwise available at the site.

For example, your site may have 12 varieties of MPI libraries, with 12 different dotkits to select from. The only users who probably want to see those 12 dotkits are developers who compile parallel MPI programs.

The sub-site dotkit for this example might be a file named mpi.dk, located in the site node, with contents such as:

#c sub-site
#d: Add MPI library selections to your catalog.

dk_alter DK_NODE /foo/bar/subsite=mpi

Every user will see the mpi dotkit in their catalog, while those who use mpi will thenceforth have all the mpi-related dotkits added to their catalog listing.

This mechanism allows the user to control the size and contents of their dotkit catalog. It also allows delegation of responsibility for maintaining dotkits to a group of people, each assigned to one sub-site.

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SYS_TYPE-specific Dotkits

Sometimes, programs are available on just one kind of machine on your network or their location varies depending on the host type. Dotkit provides for this common situation in the form of a $SYS_TYPE sub-directory of each node in the Dotkit search path. The package files themselves look the same as described above, but their location in the search path makes them visible only on the set of hosts where that is useful.

For example, there is a universal x11 dotkit with contents:

#c shell
#d: generic X11 commands (/usr/bin/X11)

dk_alter PATH /usr/bin/X11

Suppose that on your network, the machines that run Red Hat Linux have a SYS_TYPE value of redhat_9_ia32. There is also an x11 dotkit for them, located at $DK_ROOT/redhat_9_ia32:

#c shell
#d: Add /usr/X11R6/{bin,man} to PATH, MANPATH

dk_alter PATH /usr/X11R6/bin
dk_alter MANPATH /usr/X11R6/man

Whenever you log into a Linux host and use x11, Dotkit finds the second, SYS_TYPE-specific version. Otherwise, it finds the generic kit.

SYS_TYPE works well for many cases where you need to make host type distinctions. Sometimes it is too fine-grained. For example, suppose that the SYS_TYPE value for the same Linux machines used to be redhat_7_ia32, before the last operating system upgrade. If two SYS_TYPE values really do share essentially all the same dotkits, it is sufficient to make the new SYS_TYPE value a symbolic link to the old value. Otherwise, it may take a new SYS_TYPE directory, and some duplication or linking of individual dotkits between the new and old.

Another situation might occur where only one host of a given SYS_TYPE has a particular package. (This is frequently due to licensing restrictions.) In that case, you may choose to write a SYS_TYPE-specific package something like this:

#c special
#d: The hotstuff application

dk_test `hostname` = "frodo" || \
  setenv _dk_err "Sorry, only frodo can run hotstuff"

dk_setenv HOTSTUFF /opt/hotstuff
dk_alter PATH $HOTSTUFF/bin

Then, if an attempt to use hotstuff on any machine other than frodo occurs, a polite message is printed declining the request.

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Shell-specific Dotkits

If the commands and techniques above are inadequate to carry out a needed computation inside a package file, you have the option of writing to the "bare metal" of any given shell. Such a package is normally located in a *sh subdirectory of one of the nodes on the Dotkit search path (see Searching for Packages for a full discussion of the search process). And if you desire to make the functionality available to users of other shell types, you will need to write shell-specific versions of the package for those shells, too.

The first line of a shell-specific package is a comment structured as shown previously. After that, you can write pure bash, csh, ksh, or tcsh code as necessary to get the job done. Any of the commands documented in Dotkit Commands can be used if you wish.

A common approach in a shell-specific package is to write it in two sections, one for use and another for unuse. The _dk_op variable (note the leading underscore) is available for this purpose. A short but complete shell-specific package (for tcsh) is as follows:

#c shell/dotkit
#d: Set/unset the rmstar variable

if( $_dk_op == "use" ) then
  set rmstar
else # unuse
  unset rmstar
endif

Rmstar is a shell variable known only in tcsh, that, if set, prompts the user before executing an rm * command. Because it is only available to users of that shell, the code to set or unset it should be in a shell-specific package.

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How to Hide a Dotkit

Not every dotkit necessarily has to be catalogued. Some may do work on behalf of other kits. Some may be for testing. Whatever. If the name of a dotkit begins with ".", it won't show up in the output from use-usage unless the -a option is also given. However, the kit will still be found and loaded if you use it by its proper name.

If the first line of the kit is not a shell comment (beginning with '#'), the kit won't show up in use-usage either, regardless of its name or the options given. Like the first case, it will still be found and loaded if named explicitly.

If the internals of the kit include the line

setenv _dk_hide 1,

the kit will show up normally in use-usage and will be found and loaded if named explicitly but will not then be listed in the set of kits currently in use. This allows you to subsequently read the kit again without unusing it first.

Dotfile Setup

If you have read this far, perhaps you are considering whether Dotkit would be useful to incorporate into your own shell startup files. It was designed to help make those files shorter, easier to read, and more independent of system considerations.

There is a small but complete working set of example shell startup files located at $DK_ROOT/etc/example/, along with a personal $HOME/.kits/ directory for any of the four shells currently covered by Dotkit. Let's look at the cshrc startup file to consider a few of your options:

# A basic .cshrc for use with Dotkit for csh and tcsh.

#setenv DK_NODE /my/special/dotkits # optional project or group dotkits
# Look for Dotkit first in $DK_ROOT, then $HOME, then LLNL default.
if ( $?DK_ROOT ) then
  eval `$DK_ROOT/init -c`
else if ( -d "$HOME/dotkit" ) then
  eval `$HOME/dotkit/init -c`
else if ( -d "/usr/gapps/dotkit" ) then
  eval `/usr/gapps/dotkit/init -c`
endif

# This conditional needs to execute once only.
if ( ! $?SETUP_ONCE ) then
  setenv SETUP_ONCE 1
  use -q Sys Dev Prefs
endif

# Remainder is read by every shell instance.
use -q alia1++ myalia++

As you probably know already, a csh process reads one or more files when it starts: /etc/cshrc, $HOME/.cshrc, and if it is a login shell, $HOME/.login. There is a lot of variation in the exact name of the first file listed. Tcsh supplies many other alternative files, and can be compiled with further variant options. I won't consider those here.

Csh was designed so that login shells would read both of $HOME/.cshrc and $HOME/.login, in that order, while all other shell instances would read only $HOME/.cshrc. In particular, remote shells started by rsh or ssh typically are not login shells, nor are those shell instances started by an X window display manager. Many users have therefore found $HOME/.login to be of minimal value. The example above assumes that there is no $HOME/.login file at all. It does all the work traditionally done by the pair, with a conditional check to prevent most redundant setup. With that in mind, look at the first of the three sections in the file.

The setenv DK_NODE line is optional if you should need to reference dotkits in locations other than $DK_ROOT or site-specific locations set up by the Dotkit maintainer. If you do set it, do so before the eval line, because the init script may append site-specific components to DK_NODE.

The seven line if/else test to locate a copy of Dotkit shows one approach that can be used to initialize the system. It can be reduced to a single eval if you really only need to reference one copy of Dotkit.

Section two is the if test on SETUP_ONCE. This piece of code could reasonably be moved to $HOME/.login, if you prefer that arrangement, because it sets up environment variables that normally will be inherited automatically by any subsequent subshells. You could also choose to replace the use -q ... statement with a simpler (faster) group of statements that set up a more minimal initial environment.

Dotkit enables a new way to view your environment. Previously, most of us have built startup dotfiles that throw in all possible contingencies, because it is painful to change the environment later. With Dotkit, you can start from a minimal environment, and add to or change it later on.

Section three is the "Remainder." It defines aliases and so needs to be read by most shells. You might surround this line with an if($?prompt) test to keep non-interactive shells from looking for alia. Or you might choose to just set up your own alia definitions directly in this file, if your desires are simple. If you do choose to use, note that the dotkits need to be idempotent, or the request to re-read them will be ignored.

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